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21

dez
2011

2 Comentários

Em Blog
Linux

Por Allison

40 anos de evolução das shells

Em 21, dez 2011 | 2 Comentários | Em Blog, Linux | Por Allison

Uma verdade que não se pode negar, ou rebater, é que as shells estão aí para ficar, mesmo que cada vez mais só nos bastidores, em modo não-interativo, ou nas mãos de usuários experientes, que apreciam seus recursos.

Mas você sabia que a shell original – o primeiro /bin/sh, escrito por Ken Thompson – surgiu há quarenta anos, em 1971 (dois anos depois do nascimento do próprio Unix) e tinha menos de 900 linhas de código? Isso porque boa parte do que hoje conhecemos como comandos builtin da shell (incluindo elementos essenciais, como o if), na época, eram apenas utilitários externos, até mesmo recursos como o glob (que “interpreta” caracteres especiais como * e ? em parâmetros correspondentes a nomes de arquivo) eram implementações à parte, e a shell era exclusivamente interativa. A capacidade de interpretar scripts veio mais tarde.

Em compensação, recurso,s como pipes (| ou, na época, ^) e redirecionamento de entrada e saída (<, >, >>, etc.) já estavam presentes.

Daí pra frente a evolução foi acelerada: Stephen Bourne criou a Bourne Shell (que ainda pode ser vista em sistemas contemporâneos) em 1977, fazendo a base do que no final da década de 1980 surgiu como o mestiço /bin/bash (Bourne Again Shell) que hoje vemos como shell default em boa parte das distribuições Linux, do OS X e de outros sistemas UNIX e Unix-like atuais.

Um livro que trata do assunto e está sendo muito comentado pelos profissionais é o Bombando o Shell, do Júlio Neves. O foco do livro está na interatividade das shells, incluindo o controle de diálogos em modo gráfico.

Com informações de BR-Linux.org

Fonte: IMasters

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